啤酒论坛

标题: 特别奉献--啤酒历史文化及生产简介(不定期更新) [打印本页]

作者: zengyong    时间: 2010-5-31 19:25
标题: 特别奉献--啤酒历史文化及生产简介(不定期更新)
导读:这篇文章很经典,原文是个英国人写的。每个数字之后代表其出处,引用的书籍及文献达100多部,均有据可查。绝不是砖家YY出来的。虽然维基的中文版也有啤酒这块,但残缺不全,且涉及专业性东西都一笔带过,避重就轻,本站一字不改,独家推出专业又不失通俗的版本。

来源:维基百科


Beer啤酒简介

Beer is the world's oldest[1] and most widely consumed[2] alcoholic beverage and the third most popular drink overall after water and tea.[3] It is produced by the brewing and fermentation of starches, mainly derived from cereal grains—most commonly malted barley, although wheat, maize (corn), and rice are widely used. Most beer is flavoured with hops, which add bitterness and act as a natural preservative, though other flavourings such as herbs or fruit may occasionally be included.
啤酒是世上历史最悠久,普及范围最广的酒精饮料之一,在最受欢迎的饮料里排名位于水和茶之后居第三位。它是通过糖化及发酵酿制而成,主要原料来自谷物--尽管小麦,玉米(淀粉)及大米也被广泛使用,但最主要的还是大麦麦芽,绝大多数的啤酒通过加入了酒花形成独特苦味,酒花带来苦味的同时还兼具天然保护作用(防腐),当然偶而也会添加香草或水果等风味物质。

Some of humanity's earliest known writings refer to the production and distribution of beer: the Code of Hammurabi included laws regulating beer and beer parlours,[4] and "The Hymn to Ninkasi," a prayer to the Mesopotamian goddess of beer, served as both a prayer and as a method of remembering the recipe for beer in a culture with few literate people.[5][6] Today, the brewing industry is a global business, consisting of several dominant multinational companies and many thousands of smaller producers ranging from brewpubs to regional breweries.
许多很早就被人们熟知的涉及到啤酒生产及配送的文献:如“汉谟拉比法典”中就包括相关啤酒及酒吧的法律法规,还有“给林卡西的圣歌”,这篇给美索不达米亚平源的啤酒女神的史诗--即是史诗也是让文化较低的人们记住酿酒配方的一种方法。如今,酿造工业遍及全球,组成了很多的跨国公司及由成千上万小型酿造商的建立的作坊或区域性酿酒厂。

The basics of brewing beer are shared across national and cultural boundaries. Beers are commonly categorized into two main types—the globally popular pale lagers, and the regionally distinct ales,[7] which are further categorised into other varieties such as pale ale, stout and brown ale. The strength of beer is usually around 4% to 6% alcohol by volume (abv.) though may range from less than 1% abv., to over 20% abv. in rare cases.
啤酒酿造早已经穿越了国家及文化的界限。通常啤酒被分为2大类---全球流行的Lager(金黄色贮藏啤酒),及区域性的特制爱尔(上面发酵啤酒)。后者进一步演变成了多种类型比如淡色爱尔,黑色司陶特爱尔及棕色爱尔等。普通啤酒的强度通常为酒精度4-6%(体积百分比V/V),虽然也会有酒精度小于1%,及超过20%的。但相对少见。

[attach]25995[/attach]                                     [attach]25996[/attach]
图:比利时力夫啤酒及自家的啤酒杯                         图:从橡木桶中注入Schlenkerla Rauchbier黑啤

Beer forms part of the culture of beer-drinking nations and is associated with social traditions such as beer festivals, as well as a rich pub culture involving activities like pub crawling and pub games such as bar billiards.
啤酒演变成了国家文化的一部分并与相关的社会传统产生关联,如啤酒节,而且还有相关的丰富的酒吧文化如串吧(从一家喝到另一家),及酒吧游戏如台球等等。

Contents目录 [hide]                          
1 History 啤酒历史
2 Brewing 酿造过程
3 Ingredients 配方
4 Varieties 啤酒品种分类
4.1 Ale 上面发酵啤酒
4.2 Lager 下面发酵啤酒
4.3 Colour 颜色分类
5 Alcoholic strength 酒精度分类
6 Related beverages 相关饮料
7 Brewing industry 啤酒工业
8 Serving 饮用
8.1 Draught 生啤
8.2 Packaging 包装形式
8.3 Serving temperature饮酒温度
8.4 Vessels 饮用器具
9 Beer and society 啤酒与社会
9.1 Social context 社会背景
9.2 International consumption 国际啤酒消费
9.3 Health effects 啤酒与健康
10 Environmental impact 环境冲击
11 Notes 说明
11.1 References参考文件

History历史
Main article: History of beer啤酒的历史

Beer is one of the world's oldest prepared beverages, possibly dating back to the early Neolithic or 9000 BC, and is recorded in the written history of ancient Egypt and Mesopotamia.[8] The earliest known chemical evidence of beer dates to circa 3500–3100 BC from the site of Godin Tepe in the Zagros Mountains of western Iran.[9] Some of the earliest Sumerian writings found in the region contain references to a type of beer; one such example, a prayer to the goddess Ninkasi, known as "The Hymn to Ninkasi", served as both a prayer as well as a method of remembering the recipe for beer in a culture with few literate people.[5][6] The Ebla tablets, discovered in 1974 in Ebla, Syria and date back to 2,500 BC, reveal that the city produced a range of beers, including one that appears to be named "Ebla" after the city.[10] A beer made from rice, which, unlike sake, didn't use the amylolytic process, and was probably prepared for fementation by mastication or malting,[11] was made in China around 7,000 BC.[12]
[attach]25997[/attach]
图:加州玫瑰十字会博物馆-古埃及的啤酒制造者木制玩偶

啤酒是世上最古老的饮料之一,可以追溯到公元前9000年前的新石器时代。并记录在古埃及及美索不达比亚的历史文献中。最著名的啤酒生产证据来自大约公元前3100-3500年的伊朗西部的扎格洛斯山脉的戈丁山丘一带。许多早期的苏美尔人的包含了啤酒种类的作品在该区域被找到;其中有一件作品记载了一篇写给女神林卡西的圣歌,就是最著名那篇“给女神林卡西的圣歌”,这篇给美索不达米亚平源的啤酒女神的史诗--即是史诗也是让文化较低的人们记住酿酒配方的一种方法。那块可追溯到公元前2500年的1974年出土于叙利亚埃伯拉地区的创世泥板,揭示了该城市(埃伯拉)生产过很多种类的啤酒,包括其中被命名为“埃伯拉”的。还有一种中国于公元前7000年用大米酿造的啤酒,它与日本米酒不同--并无糖化过程,很可能经过了粉碎或用麦芽来发酵。

As almost any substance containing carbohydrates, mainly sugars or starch, can naturally undergo fermentation, it is likely that beer-like beverages were independently invented among various cultures throughout the world. The invention of bread and beer has been argued to be responsible for humanity's ability to develop technology and build civilization.[13][14][15]
几乎所有的包括碳水化合物,糖类或淀粉,都可进行自我发酵。很可能像啤酒那样的饮料是在全球不同的文化中被独自发明出来的。面包与啤酒的发明曾被用来争论是否它们给了人类以技术发展及创造文明的能力。

Beer was spread through Europe by Germanic and Celtic tribes as far back as 3000 BC,[16] and it was mainly brewed on a domestic scale.[17] The product that the early Europeans drank might not be recognised as beer by most people today. Alongside the basic starch source, the early European beers might contain fruits, honey, numerous types of plants, spices and other substances such as narcotic herbs.[18] What they did not contain was hops, as that was a later addition first mentioned in Europe around 822 by a Carolingian Abbot[19] and again in 1067 by Abbess Hildegard of Bingen.[20]
啤酒通过公元前3000年的日耳曼人及凯尔特部落延伸到整个欧洲,当时主要在国内进行酿造。早期的欧洲啤酒饮用者可能并未认识到今天啤酒会被大部分人接受。紧靠在初级的淀粉资源旁边,早期的欧洲啤酒中可能加入了包括水果,蜂蜜,各种植物,香料及其它的物质比如麻醉药草等物质,但这些添加剂中并未包括酒花,因为之后的添加剂中第一次提及到酒花是在公元822年前后被一个卡洛林王朝的男修道院长提到,然后在公元1067年被德国宾根市的一个女修道院长再次提及。

Beer produced before the Industrial Revolution continued to be made and sold on a domestic scale, although by the 7th century AD, beer was also being produced and sold by European monasteries. During the Industrial Revolution, the production of beer moved from artisanal manufacture to industrial manufacture, and domestic manufacture ceased to be significant by the end of the 19th century.[21] The development of hydrometers and thermometers changed brewing by allowing the brewer more control of the process and greater knowledge of the results.
虽然公元7世纪,啤酒已经开始生产并通过欧洲的修道院进行销售,但工业革命前的啤酒生产继续停留在国内销售的范围内。在工业革命期间,啤酒的生产开始从家庭手工酿造转至工业化生产,自19世纪开始国内的生产不再像以前那么重要,比重计及温度计的发展改变了酿造工业--允许酿造者们更好的控制过程及知晓结果。

Today, the brewing industry is a global business, consisting of several dominant multinational companies and many thousands of smaller producers ranging from brewpubs to regional breweries.[22] As of 2006, more than 133 billion liters (35 billion gallons), the equivalent of a cube 510 metres on a side, of beer are sold per year, producing total global revenues of $294.5 billion (£147.7 billion).[23]
如今,酿造工业遍布全球,组成了很多的跨国公司及成千上万的小型酒吧或酿造厂。自2006年起,啤酒产量超过1.33亿吨。(约350亿加仑),等于510米的三次方的体积,相当于每年销售1.32亿个立方的啤酒。全球所有啤酒的销售收入可达2945亿美金(1477亿欧元)。

Brewing酿造
Main article: Brewing

The process of making beer is known as brewing. A dedicated building for the making of beer is called a brewery, though beer can be made in the home and has been for much of its history. A company that makes beer is called either a brewery or a brewing company. Beer made on a domestic scale for non-commercial reasons is classified as homebrewing regardless of where it is made, though most homebrewed beer is made in the home. Brewing beer is subject to legislation and taxation in developed countries, which from the late 19th century largely restricted brewing to a commercial operation only. However, the UK government relaxed legislation in 1963, followed by Australia in 1972 and the USA in 1979, allowing homebrewing to become a popular hobby.[24]
啤酒的制造过程被称为酿造。一个专门用于啤酒制造的建筑物被称为酿酒厂,虽然啤酒也可以家庭作坊生产工艺且拥有自己的历史。酿酒的公司通常被称为酿造厂或啤酒公司。虽然大多数的家酿酒是在家中自酿的,但非商业性酿造的啤酒无论酿造点位于何处都一概被归为家庭酿造。酿造啤酒在一些发达国家要受到法律和税收的管制。19世纪晚期仅允许酒厂进行商业运营,然而英国政府在1963年颁布了允许家庭酿造的法律,紧接着澳大利亚和美国分别于1972年和1979年出出台了相关法律,让家庭酿造风靡一时。
[attach]25998[/attach]
图:一家16世纪的欧洲酒厂

The purpose of brewing is to convert the starch source into a sugary liquid called wort and to convert the wort into the alcoholic beverage known as beer in a fermentation process effected by yeast
酿造的目的是将淀粉转换成被称为“麦汁”的含糖的液体,然后经由酵母将麦汁发酵成为称作“啤酒”的酒精饮料。

[attach]26002[/attach]
图:经典的酿造流程图解

The first step, where the wort is prepared by mixing the starch source (normally malted barley) with hot water, is known as "mashing". Hot water (known as "liquor" in brewing terms) is mixed with crushed malt or malts (known as "grist") in a mash tun.[25] The mashing process takes around 1 to 2 hours,[26] during which the starches are converted to sugars, and then the sweet wort is drained off the grains. The grains are now washed in a process known as "sparging". This washing allows the brewer to gather as much of the fermentable liquid from the grains as possible. The process of filtering the spent grain from the wort and sparge water is called wort separation. The traditional process for wort separation is lautering, in which the grain bed itself serves as the filter medium. Some modern breweries prefer the use of filter frames which allow a more finely ground grist.[27] Most modern breweries use a continuous sparge, collecting the original wort and the sparge water together. However, it is possible to collect a second or even third wash with the not quite spent grains as separate batches. Each run would produce a weaker wort and thus a weaker beer. This process is known as second (and third) runnings. Brewing with several runnings is called parti gyle brewing.[28]
麦汁生产的第一步,通过用热水混合淀粉源(通常是大麦麦芽),这种液体通常被称为“醪液”。热水与粉碎后的麦芽被混合在“糖化锅”。醪液的处理需要1-2小时,在淀粉转化成糖的同时,甜麦汁从麦糟中被滤出。麦糟被清洗的过程被称为“洗糟”。该步骤让酿造者可以尽可能多的搜集到更多的可供发酵的液体。过滤的过程是将“废麦糟”和麦汁及洗糟水组成的被称为“麦汁”的液体进行分离。传统的麦汁分离装置是过滤槽,它以麦糟层作为过滤介质进行过滤。许多现代的酒厂更愿意用板框式压滤机因为其支持更大粉碎物表面积(因为粉得细)。大多数现代的酒厂都采用连续洗糟,以搜集更多原麦汁及洗糟水的混合液。然而,视情况而定可以搜集一次,二次或更多次(甚至三次)洗糟的麦汁在某些批次。每次洗糟洗出一批混合而成的弱麦汁并生成一批这种麦汁酿造出来的啤酒。这个过程通常分2步(或三步)进行。多次多次洗糟的方法被称为“多次洗糟”式酿造。

The sweet wort collected from sparging is put into a kettle, or "copper", (so called because these vessels were traditionally made from copper)[29] and boiled, usually for about one hour. During boiling, water in the wort evaporates, but the sugars and other components of the wort remain; this allows more efficient use of the starch sources in the beer. Boiling also destroys any remaining enzymes left over from the mashing stage. Hops are added during boiling as a source of bitterness, flavour and aroma. Hops may be added at more than one point during the boil. The longer the hops are boiled, the more bitterness they contribute, but the less hop flavour and aroma remains in the beer.[30]
通过洗糟搜集而来的甜麦汁被打入一个煮沸锅,或“铜锅”(这样叫是因为糖化锅传统上都是铜制的),然后开始煮沸,该过程通常需时1小时。煮沸期间,麦汁中的水份大量被蒸发,但是麦汁中的糖和其它的内溶物质仍被保留;煮沸可让酒中的发酵性糖(低分子淀粉)更加有效得以利用。煮沸也同时毁坏了醪液中酶的活性。酒花作为一种苦味,风味及香味的来源在煮沸进行时被加入。酒花也可以煮沸的多个阶段进行添加。酒花被煮沸时间的越长,可利用的苦味也越多。但少量的酒花风味和香味仍会保留在啤酒中。

After boiling, the hopped wort is now cooled, ready for the yeast. In some breweries, the hopped wort may pass through a hopback, which is a small vat filled with hops, to add aromatic hop flavouring and to act as a filter; but usually the hopped wort is simply cooled for the fermenter, where the yeast is added. During fermentation, the wort becomes beer in a process which requires a week to months depending on the type of yeast and strength of the beer. In addition to producing alcohol, fine particulate matter suspended in the wort settles during fermentation. Once fermentation is complete, the yeast also settles, leaving the beer clear.[31]
煮沸结束后,苦麦汁即被冷却,以备酵母添加。在一些酒厂,苦麦汁会穿过一个酒花浸取装置--(装满了酒花的小桶),通过该装置即可加入香型酒花还可起到过滤酒花糟的作用。但通常苦麦汁都只是经过简单的冷却,便加入酵母进入发酵罐。在发酵期间,由麦汁变成啤酒通常需要1周-1月的时间,当然这也取决于酵母的种类和啤酒的强度。为了产生酒精,发酵过程中,悬浮在麦汁中的细小颗粒物质将会下沉,一旦发酵完成,酵母亦会沉降,使得酒液变清亮(澄清)。

Fermentation is sometimes carried out in two stages, primary and secondary. Once most of the alcohol has been produced during primary fermentation, the beer is transferred to a new vessel and allowed a period of secondary fermentation. Secondary fermentation is used when the beer requires long storage before packaging or greater clarity.[32] When the beer has fermented, it is packaged either into casks for cask ale or kegs, aluminium cans, or bottles for other sorts of beer.[33]
发酵有时也会2步进行,前酵和后酵。大部分的酒精都是在主发酵期间产生的,(前酵结束)之后再被转入新的容器进行后酵。后酵主要是针对那些包装前需要长期贮酒的或在需要高清亮度的待滤液的时候。当啤酒发酵结束时,将会被包装成老式木桶,新式塑料/不锈钢桶,铝质易拉罐,或瓶装等形式。


作者: zengyong    时间: 2010-5-31 21:06
Ingredients原料


The basic ingredients of beer are water; a starch source, such as malted barley, able to be fermented (converted into alcohol); a brewer's yeast to produce the fermentation; and a flavouring such as hops.[34] A mixture of starch sources may be used, with a secondary starch source, such as maize (corn), rice or sugar, often being termed an adjunct, especially when used as a lower-cost substitute for malted barley.[35] Less widely used starch sources include millet, sorghum and cassava root in Africa, potato in Brazil, and agave in Mexico, among others.[36] The amount of each starch source in a beer recipe is collectively called the grain bill.
啤酒的基本原料为水,淀粉--如可用于发酵的大麦麦芽(转换成酒精);起发酵功能的酵母;及一种调味品-比如酒花。淀粉源(麦芽)也可与二级的淀粉源混合使用,如玉米(玉米淀粉),大米或蔗糖,常被用作辅料,特别是进行低成本酿造时可用于取代大麦麦芽。小范围使用的淀粉源包括非洲国家常用的小米,高梁和木薯根,巴西用的土豆,墨西哥用的龙舌兰,各种淀粉源在啤酒工艺中的总量称为“醪液中谷物重量百分比”。

Water 水
Beer is composed mostly of water. Regions have water with different mineral components; as a result, different regions were originally better suited to making certain types of beer, thus giving them a regional character.[37] For example, Dublin has hard water well suited to making stout, such as Guinness; while Pilzen has soft water well suited to making pale lager, such as Pilsner Urquell.[37] The waters of Burton in England contain gypsum, which benefits making pale ale to such a degree that brewers of pale ales will add gypsum to the local water in a process known as Burtonisation.[38]
啤酒的主要成份是水。区域性水源的矿物质含量均有差异;不同区域的水质适合酿造不同类型的啤酒,如果按区域水特征分类,如都柏林的高硬度水适合酿造司陶特黑啤,如著名的健力士黑啤;Pilzen地区的软水适合酿制淡色贮藏啤酒,比如皮尔森啤酒。英格兰波顿地区的的水硫酸钙(石膏)含量高,这种富含硫酸钙的水有益于酿制上面发酵啤酒,在其它地区通常酿造这种啤酒需要在水中加入一定量的石膏,该处理过程被称为“波顿式处理”。(因为发源于英国波顿地区)

Starch source 淀粉源(大麦)
Main articles: Malt and Mash ingredients
The starch source in a beer provides the fermentable material and is a key determinant of the strength and flavour of the beer. The most common starch source used in beer is malted grain. Grain is malted by soaking it in water, allowing it to begin germination, and then drying the partially germinated grain in a kiln. Malting grain produces enzymes that convert starches in the grain into fermentable sugars.[39] Different roasting times and temperatures are used to produce different colours of malt from the same grain. Darker malts will produce darker beers.[40]

[attach]26006[/attach]
图:干燥前的麦芽(绿麦芽)
淀粉源(指大麦)作为一种发酵原料是一种关键的起到决定啤酒风味特征的物质,最常见的淀粉源是大麦。大麦被放在浸泡槽中浸渍,之后开始发芽,然后在干燥炉中将发芽到一定程度的绿麦芽脱水,麦芽生产过程中生成的酶将淀粉转换成可发酵的糖。同样的大麦在不同的发芽时间及温度条件下可生产出不同色泽的麦芽。深色麦芽将用于生产深色啤酒。

Nearly all beer includes barley malt as the majority of the starch. This is because of its fibrous husk, which is not only important in the sparging stage of brewing (in which water is washed over the mashed barley grains to form the wort), but also as a rich source of amylase, a digestive enzyme which facilitates conversion of starch into sugars. Other malted and unmalted grains (including wheat, rice, oats, and rye, and less frequently, corn and sorghum) may be used. In recent years, a few brewers have produced gluten-free beer made with sorghum with no barley malt for those who cannot consume gluten-containing grains like wheat, barley, and rye.[41]
几乎所有的啤酒都将大麦作为主要淀粉源。这是因为它那富含纤维的壳(麦皮)不仅在酿造洗糟阶段很重要(即麦汁过滤阶段洗糟时产生麦汁的过程),它自身还富含丰富的淀粉酶---用于将淀粉转换成糖的消化酶。其它的麦芽及辅料(包括小麦,大米,燕麦,黑麦,及很少用到的玉米和高梁)可能也会用到,最近几年,一些酿造者开始以高梁为原料生产“无糖蛋白啤酒”,不使用任何大麦麦芽,专门提供给那些不能消费含“糖蛋白”的像小麦,大麦及黑麦等这些谷物类的消费者。(一些免疫低下的消费者不能摄取“糖蛋白”)

Hops 酒花
Main article: Hops

Flavouring beer is the sole major commercial use of hops.[42] The flower of the hop vine is used as a flavouring and preservative agent in nearly all beer made today. The flowers themselves are often called "hops".
酒花最主要的商业用途是调味,酒花的花朵在今天的酿造行业常被用于调味及作为天然的保护剂,它的花朵通常被称为“酒花”

[attach]26007[/attach]
图:德国哈拉道酒花


Hops were used by monastery breweries, such as Corvey in Westphalia, Germany, from 822 AD,[21][43] though the date normally given for widespread cultivation of hops for use in beer is the thirteenth century.[21][43] Before the thirteenth century, and until the sixteenth century, during which hops took over as the dominant flavouring, beer was flavoured with other plants; for instance, Glechoma hederacea. Combinations of various aromatic herbs, berries, and even ingredients like wormwood would be combined into a mixture known as gruit and used as hops are now used.[44] Some beers today, such as Fraoch' by the Scottish Heather Ales company[45] and Cervoise Lancelot by the French Brasserie-Lancelot company,[46] use plants other than hops for flavouring.

虽然人们普遍认为认为酒花种植及将其用于啤酒是从13世纪开始,但其实从公元822年起,酒花就已经在德国威斯特法利亚的科威修道院酒厂被使用。在13世纪前,直到16世纪,在酒花成为主要的调味剂的期间,啤酒中也会添加其它的植物例如,连钱草。通过联合不同的芳香型草本植物,莓果,甚至像苦艾草这样的原料来进行啤酒酿造,这些植物的混合物被大家称为“gruit”一直延用至今天,如当今许多的啤酒如苏格兰希瑟啤酒公司及法国Cervoise Lancelot公司产的啤酒使用的植物数量都超过了酒花使用量。

Hops contain several characteristics that brewers desire in beer. Hops contribute a bitterness that balances the sweetness of the malt; the bitterness of beers is measured on the International Bitterness Units scale. Hops contribute floral, citrus, and herbal aromas and flavours to beer. Hops have an antibiotic effect that favours the activity of brewer's yeast over less desirable microorganisms, and hops aids in "head retention",[47][48] the length of time that a foamy head created by carbonation will last. The acidity of hops is a preservative.[49][50]
酒花中富含酿造者们渴望的许多特性。酒花赋予啤酒苦味的同时还平衡了麦芽中的甜味;啤酒的苦味物值含量可通过国际苦味单位(IBU)来衡量。酒花给啤酒带来花香,柑橘香,药草香及很多其它风味。酒花具有抗菌作用且有助于酵母的活性,酒花有助于记忆力,通过酸化的酒花还有助于延长啤酒的泡沫持续时间。酒花中的酸是一种保护剂。

Yeast 酵母
Main articles: Brewer's yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and Saccharomyces uvarum

Yeast is the microorganism that is responsible for fermentation in beer. Yeast metabolises the sugars extracted from grains, which produces alcohol and carbon dioxide, and thereby turns wort into beer. In addition to fermenting the beer, yeast influences the character and flavour.[51] The dominant types of yeast used to make beer are ale yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and lager yeast (Saccharomyces uvarum); their use distinguishes ale and lager.[52] Brettanomyces ferments lambics,[53] and Torulaspora delbrueckii ferments Bavarian weissbier.[54] Before the role of yeast in fermentation was understood, fermentation involved wild or airborne yeasts. A few styles such as lambics rely on this method today, but most modern fermentation adds pure yeast cultures.[55]
酵母在是一种在啤酒中起发酵作用的微生物。酵母将谷物中的糖进行代谢,产生酒精及二氧化碳,由此将麦汁转化成啤酒。此外在啤酒发酵时,酵母还会影响到啤酒的啤酒的风味和口味特征。最主要的啤酒用酵母主要分上面酵母及下面酵母;以用于辨别和区分到底是爱尔啤酒还是贮藏啤酒。酒香酵母用于生产兰比克啤酒(一种特制的香槟啤酒),有孢圆酵母用于生产巴伐利亚白啤酒。在认识到酵母在发酵中扮演的角色之前,野生酵母及空气中的酵母也参与发酵。

Clarifying agent澄清剂


Main article: Finings
Some brewers add one or more clarifying agents to beer, which typically precipitate (collect as a solid) out of the beer along with protein solids and are found only in trace amounts in the finished product. This process makes the beer appear bright and clean, rather than the cloudy appearance of ethnic and older styles of beer such as wheat beers.[56]
Examples of clarifying agents include isinglass, obtained from swimbladders of fish; Irish moss, a seaweed; kappa carrageenan, from the seaweed Kappaphycus cottonii; Polyclar (artificial); and gelatin.[57] If a beer is marked "suitable for Vegans", it was clarified either with seaweed or with artificial agents.[58]
See also: Vegetarianism and beer
许多酒厂会在酒中添加一种或多种的澄清剂,使啤酒的蛋白质和其它固体一起沉淀并使成品中的沉淀物质含量更加低。这个过程使啤酒变得分外的清亮和透明,远胜过像小麦啤酒那样的阴暗的颜色。

常见的澄清剂包括--来自于鱼鳔中的鱼胶;爱尔兰藓(一种海藻);来自藻类中的卡帕角叉菜胶;人造化工材料宝丽卡;明胶等等。如果一种啤酒标明是“适用于素食主义者”,那它将会采用海藻或人造材料宝丽卡来进行澄清。



作者: zengyong    时间: 2010-6-4 19:15
Varieties啤酒的种类

Main article: Beer style

While there are many types of beer brewed, the basics of brewing beer are shared across national and cultural boundaries.[59] The traditional European brewing regions—Germany, Belgium, the United Kingdom, Ireland, Poland, the Czech Republic, Scandinavia, the Netherlands and Austria—have local varieties of beer. In some countries, notably the USA, Canada, and Australia, brewers have adapted European styles to such an extent that they have effectively created their own indigenous types.[60]
尽管有许多不同类型的啤酒在酿造,但啤酒酿造早已跨越了国界及文化的边缘。传统的欧洲啤酒生产区域---德国,比利时,英国,爱尔兰,波兰,捷克,斯堪迪纳维亚,荷兰及奥地利---都有着很多当地独有的啤酒品种。在很多国家,尤其是美国,加拿大,澳大利亚,酿酒者们引入了欧洲的啤酒类型,并进一步的将他们升华成他们本土的新啤酒类型。

Despite the regional variations, beer is categorised into two main types based on the temperature of the brewing which influences the behaviour of yeast used during the brewing process—lagers, which are brewed at a low temperature, and the more regionally distinct ales, brewed at a higher temperature.[61] Ales are further categorised into other varieties such as pale ale, stout and brown ale.
尽管区域的品种繁多,啤酒还是可按发酵温度将其分为二大主要类型---贮藏啤酒。在低温下酿造,独具地方特色的上面发酵啤酒---在高温下进行酿造,爱尔啤酒(上面发酵啤酒)还可进一步的分为其它的种类,比如淡色爱尔啤酒,司陶特黑色爱尔啤酒及棕色爱尔啤酒

[attach]26018[/attach]
图:德国科隆樱桃啤酒

Michael Jackson, in his 1977 book The World Guide To Beer, categorised beers from around the world in local style groups suggested by local customs and names.[62] Fred Eckhardt furthered Jackson's work in The Essentials of Beer Style in 1989.
Michael Jackson,在他的1977年一本名叫”世界啤酒指引“的书中写道,世界上的本土啤酒种类建议由当地消费者对命名,Fred Eckhardt 更进一步推进了Michael Jackson的事业,在1989年出版了一本叫做“啤酒种类的基本要素”的书。
The most common method of categorising beer is by the behaviour of the yeast used in the fermentation process. In this method, beers using a fast-acting yeast which leaves behind residual sugars are termed "ales", while beers using a slower-acting yeast, fermented at lower temperatures, which removes most of the sugars, leaving a clean, dry beer, are termed "lagers". Differences between some ales and lagers can be difficult to categorise. Steam beer, Kölsch, Alt, and some modern British Golden Summer Beers use elements of both lager and ale production. Baltic Porter and Bière de Garde may be produced by either lager or ale methods or a combination of both. However, lager production results in a cleaner-tasting, drier and lighter beer than ale.[63]
最普通的分类方法是依酵母在发酵过程中的习性来分。照此方法,使用快速发酵酵母的残糖较高啤酒被命名为“爱尔啤酒”,使用慢速发酵酵母进行低温发酵,残糖较低,清亮且口感干净的啤酒,命名为“贮藏啤酒”。同样的“爱尔啤酒”与“贮藏啤酒”是很难分类的。高泡啤酒,科隆啤酒,Alt啤酒,及许多现代的英国金色夏季啤酒会结合使用2种啤酒的工艺进行生产。波罗的海的Porter 与 Bière de Garde2种啤酒可能使用2种方面中的一种,或结合两种方法进行生产。但有一点,贮藏啤酒相比爱尔啤酒还是会有更干净更清更爽的口感。

Ale爱尔啤酒
Main article: Ale

An ale is commonly defined by the strain of yeast used and the fermenting temperature. Ales are normally brewed with top-fermenting yeasts (most commonly Saccharomyces cerevisiae), though a number of British brewers, including Fullers and Weltons,[64] use ale yeast strains that have less-pronounced top-fermentation characteristics. The important distinction for ales is that they are fermented at higher temperatures and thus ferment more quickly than lagers.
爱尔啤酒是以酵母菌株的及发酵温度来定义的,爱尔啤酒一般使用上面发酵酵母(最普通的一种酿酒酵母),虽然很多的英国酿造者,包括福勒斯 及威尔顿斯2家酒厂,使用的爱尔酵母菌株具有不明显的上面发酵酵母的特征。最重要的差别的它的高发酵温度及因此带来的比下面发酵酵母更快的发酵速度。

Ale is typically fermented at temperatures between 15 and 24°C (60 and 75°F). At these temperatures, yeast produces significant amounts of esters and other secondary flavour and aroma products, and the result is often a beer with slightly "fruity" compounds resembling apple, pear, pineapple, banana, plum, or prune, among others.[65]
爱尔啤酒的典型发酵温度为15-24摄氏度,在此温度下,酵母产生出大量的酯类及其它的一些次要的风味及香味物质。并导致啤酒通常会出现类似红苹果,梨,凤梨,香蕉,梅子,李子类的“水果”味。

Typically ales have a sweeter, fuller body than lagers.
典型的爱尔啤酒呈现出比贮藏啤酒更甜,更丰满的酒体特征。
Before the introduction of hops into England from the Netherlands in the 15th century, the name "ale" was exclusively applied to unhopped fermented beverages, the term beer being gradually introduced to describe a brew with an infusion of hops. This distinction no longer applies.[66] The word ale may come from the Old English ealu, in turn from the Proto-Indo-European base *alut-, which holds connotations of "sorcery, magic, possession, intoxication".[67]
在15世纪,酒花从荷兰引入英国之前,“爱尔”这个名称专指无酒花酿造的发酵饮料。之后渐渐地也开始用于那些加入了酒花酿造的啤酒,因此这个差别就不再适用。“爱尔”这个词可能来自于古英语中的“ ealu”---来自原始印欧语系中的alut-“包含着巫术,魔法,占有,陶醉“等意。

Real ale is the term coined by the Campaign for Real Ale (CAMRA) in 1973[68] for "beer brewed from traditional ingredients, matured by secondary fermentation in the container from which it is dispensed, and served without the use of extraneous carbon dioxide". It is applied to bottle conditioned and cask conditioned beers.

”正宗爱尔“一词是由在1973年“争取散装啤酒运动”中创造出来的词汇,该运动的目的是为“采用传统原料,在容器2次发酵后熟,不添加额外的二氧化碳。适用于瓶装及桶装的啤酒”争取地位。
[attach]26025[/attach] [attach]26034[/attach]
桶装爱尔啤酒的手动泵及产品细节描述  一品脱的爱尔啤酒

Lambic 兰比克啤酒
Lambic, a beer of Belgium, is naturally fermented using wild yeasts, rather than cultivated. Many of these are not strains of brewer's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and may have significant differences in aroma and sourness. Yeast varieties such as Brettanomyces bruxellensis and Brettanomyces lambicus are common in lambics. In addition, other organisms such as Lactobacillus bacteria produce acids which contribute to the sourness.[69]
兰比克是一种比利时的啤酒,使用野生酵母而非培养酵母进行天然发酵。这其中的许多非酿造酵母与酿酒者们用的酵母在香气与酸味上有着显著性的差异。许多的酵母品种像酒香酵母bruxellensis 与ambicus 在兰比克啤酒的酿造中常常用到,此外其它的微生物比如乳酸杆菌的产酸也有助于产生酸味。

Stout 司陶特深色啤酒
Stout and porter are dark beers made using roasted malts or roast barley, and typically brewed with slow fermenting yeast. There are a number of variations including Baltic porter, dry stout, and Imperial stout. The name Porter was first used in 1721 to describe a dark brown beer popular with the street and river porters of London.[70] This same beer later also became known as stout, though the word stout had been used as early as 1677.[71] The history and development of stout and porter are intertwined.[72]
司陶特与波特这2种啤酒都属采用烘烤麦芽或烘烤大麦生产的啤酒,采用典型的慢速发酵的酵母进行酿造。它有着众多的种类包括波罗地海波特,超干司陶特,及帝国司陶特等等。“波特”这个称呼第一次使用是在1721年用于描述深棕色啤酒如何深受伦敦市民的喜爱。同样的啤酒随后也变成众所周知的司陶特,虽然司陶特这个词汇早在1677年就已经在使用。历史与司陶特的发展相互交织。

Wheat德国小麦啤酒

[attach]26039[/attach]
图:德国小麦啤酒

German wheat beerWheat beer is brewed with a large proportion of wheat although it often also contains a significant proportion of malted barley. Wheat beers are usually top-fermented (in Germany they have to be by law).[73] The flavour of wheat beers varies considerably, depending upon the specific style.
德国小麦啤酒采用了大量的小麦麦芽尽管有时也使用一部分的大麦麦芽,它通常采用上面发酵酵母(在德国必须遵守纯酿法),小麦啤酒的风味取决于不同种类,差异很大。

Lager贮藏啤酒
Main article: Lager
Lager is the English name for cool fermenting beers of Central European origin. Pale lagers are the most commonly consumed beers in the world. The name lager comes from the German lagern for "to store", as brewers around Bavaria stored beer in cool cellars and caves during the warm summer months. These brewers noticed that the beers continued to ferment, and to also clear of sediment, when stored in cool conditions.[74]
贮藏啤酒一词起源于中欧对低温发酵的啤酒的英文称谓。淡色贮藏啤酒是世界上最被广泛消费的啤酒。 lager 一词来源于德文的lagern指的是“贮藏”之意。因为巴伐利亚附近的酿酒者会在炎热的夏季将啤酒贮藏在低温的酒窖及洞穴中。这些酿造者们注意到在低温的条件下,啤酒会持续的发酵,并得到澄清。

Lager yeast is a cool bottom-fermenting yeast (Saccharomyces pastorianus) and typically undergoes primary fermentation at 7–12 °C (45–54 °F) (the fermentation phase), and then is given a long secondary fermentation at 0–4 °C (32–39 °F) (the lagering phase). During the secondary stage, the lager clears and mellows. The cooler conditions also inhibit the natural production of esters and other byproducts, resulting in a "cleaner"-tasting beer.[75]
贮藏啤酒采用的是底部发酵的酵母(啤酒酵母),典型的主发酵温度在 7–12 °C(主酵期),之后在 0–4 °C进行一次较长的二次发酵(贮酒期)。在后酵阶段,酒液变清亮并成熟。冷却的条件也抑止了酯类及其它发酵副产物的产生,形成“干净的”口感的啤酒。

Modern methods of producing lager were pioneered by Gabriel Sedlmayr the Younger, who perfected dark brown lagers at the Spaten Brewery in Bavaria, and Anton Dreher, who began brewing a lager (now known as Vienna lager), probably of amber-red colour, in Vienna in 1840–1841. With improved modern yeast strains, most lager breweries use only short periods of cold storage, typically 1–3 weeks.
现代贮藏啤酒生产方法是由一位叫 Gabriel Sedlmayr 的年轻人首先提出的。在巴伐利亚的斯巴登酒厂他使深棕色贮藏啤酒的酿造工艺得以进一步完善。在1840–1841的维也纳,安东德雷尔动手酿造一种贮藏啤酒(现在被称为维也纳贮藏啤酒),酒液颜色大概为琥珀色。通过不断改进现代的酵母菌株,大部分生产贮藏啤酒的酒厂都使用快速的短期的冷贮发酵方式,酿酒期通常为1-3周。





作者: zengyong    时间: 2010-6-5 20:10
colour颜色
Beer colour is determined by the malt.[76] The most common colour is a pale amber produced from using pale malts. Pale lager and pale ale are terms used for beers made from malt dried with coke. Coke was first used for roasting malt in 1642, but it was not until around 1703 that the term pale ale was used.[77][78]
颜色
啤酒的颜色深浅取决于所使用的麦芽的种类。最常见的颜色为采用淡色麦芽生产的淡琥珀色啤酒。淡色贮藏啤酒与淡色爱尔啤酒都使用焦炭干燥的麦芽。用焦炭来干燥麦芽最早是在1642年。但直到1703年才被淡色爱尔啤酒采用。
In terms of sales volume, most of today's beer is based on the pale lager brewed in 1842 in the town of Pilsen in the present-day Czech Republic.[79] The modern pale lager is light in colour with a noticeable carbonation (fizzy bubbles) and a typical alcohol by volume content of around 5%. The Pilsner Urquell, Bitburger, and Heineken brands of beer are typical examples of pale lager, as are the American brands Budweiser, Coors, and Miller.
按销量来算,今天的大部分淡色贮藏啤酒的酿造方法都是基于1842年的皮尔森酒厂(即如今的捷克共和国境内的皮尔森酒厂)。现代的贮藏啤酒的典型特征就是淡的颜色伴随着碳酸化的酒体及明显的泡沫,通常酒精度为5%左右。著名的皮尔森, Bitburger,喜力等品牌啤酒都属淡色贮藏啤酒的典型代表。美国的啤酒品牌百威,康盛,米勒也同属淡色贮藏啤酒一类。
Dark beers are usually brewed from a pale malt or lager malt base with a small proportion of darker malt added to achieve the desired shade. Other colourants—such as caramel—are also widely used to darken beers. Very dark beers, such as stout, use dark or patent malts that have been roasted longer. Some have roasted unmalted barley.[80][81]
深色啤酒通常采用淡色麦芽或采用浅色麦芽搭配小比例的深色麦芽来达到想要的颜色。其它的着色剂-如焦糖-也被广泛用于酿造深色啤酒。颜色超深的啤酒,比如司陶特黑啤酒,使用深色或长时烘焙的特制麦芽酿造。许多还会采用未经发芽的烤大麦。

[attach]26071[/attach]
图:宝来纳 敦克尔 - 深色啤酒
作者: zengyong    时间: 2010-6-19 14:05
Alcoholic strength酒精强度

Beer ranges from less than 3% alcohol by volume (abv) to around 14% abv, though this strength has been increased to around 20% by re-pitching with champagne yeast,[82] and to 41% abv by the freeze-distilling process.[83] The alcohol content of beer varies by local practice[84] or beer style. The pale lagers that most consumers are familiar with fall in the range of 4–6%, with a typical abv of 5%.[85] The customary strength of British ales is quite low, with many session beers being around 4% abv.[86] Some beers, such as table beer are of such low alcohol content (1%–4%) that they are served instead of soft drinks in some schools.[87]

尽管通过接种香槟酵母可使啤酒的酒精度上升到20%,通过冷冻蒸馏更是可达41%以上,但普通啤酒的酒精度通常在3%以下至14%左右这个范围。啤酒的酒精含量通常基于当地的风俗和取决于啤酒的种类。消费者最熟悉的淡色麦芽酒的酒精度通常在4-6%,典型的酒精度含量为5%。英国爱尔啤酒的酒精度很低,许多啤酒的酒精度在4%左右。许多啤酒比如佐餐啤酒的酒精度通常为1-4%,他们在很多的学校被用来代替软饮料作为招待饮料。

The alcohol in beer comes primarily from the metabolism of sugars that are produced during fermentation. The quantity of fermentable sugars in the wort and the variety of yeast used to ferment the wort are the primary factors that determine the amount of alcohol in the final beer. Additional fermentable sugars are sometimes added to increase alcohol content, and enzymes are often added to the wort for certain styles of beer (primarily "light" beers) to convert more complex carbohydrates (starches) to fermentable sugars. Alcohol is a byproduct of yeast metabolism and is toxic to the yeast; typical brewing yeast cannot survive at alcohol concentrations above 12% by volume. Low temperatures and too little fermentation time decreases the effectiveness of yeasts and consequently decreases the alcohol content.

啤酒中的酒精主要来自于发酵过程中糖的代谢作用。麦汁中可发酵性糖的含量及发酵时用的酵母的种类是决定成品啤酒酒精度的决定性因素。外加可发酵性糖有时被用来提升酒精含量,通常在麦汁中加入酶来将复合糖(淀粉)转化成可发酵性糖以制造出清爽性啤酒。酒精是酵母代谢的副产物,对酵母活力有一定的破坏作用;典型的酿造酵母是无法在酒精度12%以上的环境中生存下来的。低温及短时发酵可减少了这种副作用并造成酒精含量的减少。

Exceptionally strong beers
The strength of beers has climbed during the later years of the 20th century. Vetter 33, a 10.5% abv (33 degrees Plato, hence Vetter "33"), doppelbock, was listed in the 1994 Guinness Book of World Records as the strongest beer at that time,[88][89] though Samichlaus, by the Swiss brewer Hürlimann, had also been listed by the Guinness Book of World Records as the strongest at 14% abv.[90][91][92]

特制高度啤酒

啤酒的酒精度从20世纪以来不断攀升。Vetter 33-这种啤酒的酒精度高达10.5%(原麦汁浓度33柏拉图,因此命名为33),doppelbock-在1994年的吉尼斯世界大全里被列为最烈啤酒。尽管瑞士的一家名为Hürlimann的酒厂也生产出了14%酒精度的Samichlaus啤酒也被列为最烈啤酒。

Since then, some brewers have used champagne yeasts to increase the alcohol content of their beers. Samuel Adams reached 20% abv with Millennium,[82] and then surpassed that amount to 25.6% abv with Utopias. The strongest beer brewed in Britain was Baz's Super Brew by Parish Brewery, a 23% abv beer.[93][94] The beer that is claimed to be the strongest yet made is Sink The Bismarck!, a 41% abv IPA,[83] made by BrewDog, who also made Tactical Nuclear Penguin, a 32% abv Imperial Stout, using the eisbock method of freeze distilling - in November 2009 the brewery freeze distilled a 10% ale, gradually removing the ice until the beer reached 32% abv.[95][96] The German brewery Schorschbräu's Schorschbock—a 31% abv eisbock,[97][98][99] and Hair of the Dog's Dave—a 29% abv barley wine made in 1994, both used the same freeze distilling method.[100]

自那以后,许多酿酒者开始使用香槟酵母来增加啤酒的酒精含量。塞缪尔亚当斯公司的产品(千禧年)酒精度达到20%,之后更是推出了25.6%酒精度的乌托邦啤酒。酒精度最高的的啤酒是来自英国 Parish 酒厂的由brewdog制造的Baz's超级啤酒。酒精度达到41%.2009年12月,这个人采用冷冻蒸馏的方法酿制出了10%酒精度的爱尔啤酒,然后慢慢的去掉冰块,直到酒精度达到32%。这种啤酒被命名为“tactical nuclear penguin".
德国的 Schorschbräu's Schorschbock--有一种31%酒精度的产品,1994年制造了一种叫做hair of Dog's Dave的29%酒精度的大麦啤酒。使用的方法也是深冷蒸馏法。

Related beverages
See also: Category:Types of beer
Around the world, there are a number of traditional and ancient starch-based beverages classed as beer. In Africa, there are various ethnic beers made from sorghum or millet, such as Oshikundu[101] in Namibia and Tella in Ethiopia.[102] Kyrgyzstan also has a beer made from millet; it is a low alcohol, somewhat porridge-like drink called "Bozo".[103] Bhutan, Nepal, Tibet and Sikkim also use millet in Chhaang, a popular semi-fermented rice/millet drink in the eastern Himalayas.[104] Further east in China are found Huangjiu and Choujiu—traditional rice-based beverages related to beer.

相关饮料
世界范围内,有许多传统及史前的淀粉类饮料被划分成啤酒。在非洲,有许多不同种类的啤酒使用高梁和小米,比如纳米比亚的Oshikundu啤酒及 埃塞俄比亚的Tella 啤酒。吉尔吉斯斯坦也有一种小米啤酒;它是一种低酒精,有点稀饭状的饮料叫做"Bozo".不丹,尼泊尔,西藏与锡金也使用小米酿造Chhaang啤酒,这是一种在喜马拉雅山脉深受欢迎的半发酵饮料。更东边的中国还有黄酒与稠酒--一种传统的使用大米发酵的类似啤酒的饮料。

The Andes in South America has Chicha, made from germinated maize (corn); while the indigenous peoples in Brazil have Cauim, a traditional beverage made since pre-Columbian times by chewing manioc so that enzymes present in human saliva can break down the starch into fermentable sugars;[105] this is similar to Masato in Peru.[106]

南美的安第斯山脉也有一种吉开酒,使用发芽后的玉米酿制;同时巴西的土著居民也会饮用一种 叫做Cauim的传统饮料,这种饮料发源自以前哥伦布时期,通过咀嚼木薯用人的唾液可以分解淀粉生成糖,这与秘鲁的 Masato 有点类似。

Some beers which are made from bread, which is linked to the earliest forms of beer, are Sahti in Finland, Kvass in Russia and the Ukraine, and Bouza in Sudan.

许多的啤酒生产来源于面包,这与早期的啤酒形成有一定关联,如芬兰的Sahti,俄罗斯的与乌克兰的Kvass啤酒,苏丹的 Bouza 啤酒。

作者: zengyong    时间: 2010-7-1 18:24
最近本人比较忙,所以只能不定期更新,欢迎批评指正,交流。
作者: cjw3221    时间: 2010-7-13 18:39
very very good
it is my great honour to learn something from you
作者: mikexie100    时间: 2010-10-13 17:14
这样的好文章一定要支持!
感谢楼主!
作者: y3td    时间: 2010-11-20 20:16
很好
长见识了:handshake
作者: 小桥流水    时间: 2010-11-27 10:30
谢谢分享,期待更新
作者: 1627    时间: 2010-12-2 14:25
呵呵,见识一下
作者: ggmmq    时间: 2010-12-30 15:17
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作者: yyz    时间: 2011-2-16 10:27
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